Sun is a vast nuclear power plant residing in sky. Everything on earth is getting energy from sun. Light coming from sun contains energy. In general when this light hits some object, energy gets converted into heat and when this light hits some specific material such as solar pane, energy rather than heat gets converted into electrical energy or current which later on can be harnessed for power. Solar panels make use of silicon crystals that produce electrical current as soon as they are struck by light.
Materials like silicon are highly efficient when it comes to converting light energy into electrical energy. Solar panels are panels of thin film that make use of newer materials which are much cost effective crystals. Thin solar films use stacked semiconductors just few micrometers in thickness and having varying innovative uses like solar window or roof shingles generating electricity. Already interested in Home Solar Panel kits? Check more information here.
One may be wondering that how do solar panels work and how solar panels convert light from sun into electricity. Here you will get answer to this question – In crystals, bonds between atoms of silicon are made up of electrons that will be shared between all crystals’ atoms. When light is absorbed, individual electrons get excited in bonds into higher levels of energy as well as they can now move around much freely as compared to previous bond. Then those electrons can move around throughout the crystal freely hence producing electrical current. It is quiet vital to carry on work towards harnessing as well as increasing solar power usage primarily because fossil fuel is getting depleted, falling out of favour, and becoming much expensive.
One of the most reliable, safe, and cleanest way to produce electrical energy or electricity is through solar power. As global demand for energy is growing, conventional resources of energy are becoming costly hence individuals are looking towards gaining energy from sun.
Solar panels are highly important to us. Each light beam that can be converted into electricity will be just another step towards reducing dependency on fossil fuels that are not just polluting but expensive as well. Deploying as well as installing these solar panels is a career field as well hence by generating electricity from sun we are generating home-based jobs as well. Let us take a look at how do solar panels work.
You may have come across solar cells in satellites and calculators. These are known as PV cells (photovoltaic cells) where photo refers to light and voltaic refers to electricity. These cells have the ability to directly convert sunlight into electricity. Group of cells that are electrically connected and packaged into frame is called module or much commonly solar panel. This module can be grouped into longer and wider solar arrays to design a complete solar panel. Special materials known as semiconductors like silicon are used for making Photovoltaic cells. When light strikes cell, some amount of that light will be absorbed within semiconductor material. It means energy of absorbed light will be transferred to semiconductor. This energy forces electrons to get loosen hence allowing them to move freely. Nearly all PV cells will have more than one electric field that will act towards forcing freed electrons to flow in some specific direction. The flow of electrons is called current and when come metal is placed in contact with bottom and top of PV cells, that current can be drawn for external usage. It is this current that together with voltage from cells defines power that can be produced by solar cells.
SOLAR PANEL BENEFITS:
Silicon is having some sort of special chemical properties, primarily when it is in crystalline form. One silicon atom has fourteen electrons that are arranged in 3 varying shells. First 2 shells will be holding 2 and 8 electrons, respectively and are completely full. However, outer shell is just half filled with only 4 electrons. Hence, silicon atoms is always looking for ways of filling up that last shell and it shares electrons of it with 4 nearby atoms. This means every atom is holding hands with its respective neighbour hence forming crystalline structure. Crystalline silicon in its pure form isn’t a good electricity conductor as no free electrons are there in it that can move freely. This is why solar cells will have some impurities wherein silicon atoms will purposefully be mixed with other atoms. This process of impurities adding is called doping where silicon is doped with phosphorous.
When light that will be in photons form hits solar cells, the energy created breaks apart hole-electron pairs. Every photon that is having sufficient energy is going to free just one electron as a result of which one free hole will also be there. When this happens significantly close to electric field, the field would send hole to P side and electron to N side. It leads to electrical neutrality further disruption. Now if some external path to current is provided, electrons would be flowing through this path to P side for uniting with holes. This flow of electrons gives rise to current hence electric field of the cell causes voltage. The product of two that is voltage and current provides power. Silicon is pretty shiny material that sends photons bouncing away prior to they are done with their job. This is why antireflective coating will be applied for reducing such losses. Post this glass cover, plating is done to protect cells from elements. In general, PV modules will be made by connecting together many individual cells for achieving useful current and voltage levels. This is put in sturdy frame completed with negative and positive terminals.
The amount of light absorbed by solar panels depends on various factors. It first and foremost depends on the location where it is installed and direction towards which it is facing. Usually solar panels are positioned in such a way so that they get maximum sunlight for maximum time duration. For this one may require help from professional solar panel installers. In places where there is more sunlight, electricity generated will be more whereas places where sunlight is not that good will not have good electricity.